Types of archaeological dating methods
Dating techniques are procedures used by scientists to determine the age of an object or a series of events.The two main types of dating methods are relative and absolute.This method is based on the assumption (which nearly always holds true) that deeper layers of rock were deposited earlier in Earth's history, and thus are older than more shallow layers.The successive layers of rock represent successive intervals of time.Adding the margin of error for carbon-14 (in this case, /- 150 years), the archaeologist can give a reliable date range for the bone: 1655-1405 B. A bone found deep in the ground will generally be older than one found close to the surface, for example.Two bones found in the same archaeological deposit are likely to be the same age.Archaeologists and scientists use absolute dating methods on samples ranging from prehistoric fossils to artifacts from relatively recent history.Chronometric techniques include radiometric dating and radio-carbon dating, which both determine the age of materials through the decay of their radioactive elements; dendrochronology, which dates events and environmental conditions by studying tree growth rings; fluorine testing, which dates bones by calculating their fluorine content; pollen analysis, which identifies the number and type of pollen in a sample to place it in the correct historical period; and thermoluminescence, which dates ceramic materials by measuring their stored energy.
Adrian Grahams began writing professionally in 1989 after training as a newspaper reporter.Imagine an archaeologist needs to assign a date to a bone recovered during an excavation.Turning to carbon-14 dating, the archaeologist might discover that the bone dates from 3,500 years ago. It involves putting things into a sequence based on their relative ages.Dating methods is the area that attempts to establish a chronological sequence through various methods including relative comparisons, scientific analysis and level of accuracy. This paper will introduce absolute dating based on the scientific research methodology of Korean archaeology, including its principle, history and achievements.
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Many of these techniques are still experimental, or have not found wide acceptence in archaeology yet, hence they have not been discussed here.